Health Do. 24-hour movement guidelines – birth to 5 years – brochure. 2017. Accessed 19 Jun 2021.
De Craemer M, Verbestel V, Cardon G, Androutsos O, Manios Y, Chastin S. Correlates of meeting the physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep guidelines for the early years among belgian preschool children: the toybox-study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(19):7006.
Cliff DP, McNeill J, Vella SA, Howard SJ, Santos R, Batterham M, et al. Adherence to 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years and associations with social-cognitive development among Australian preschool children. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(Suppl 5):857.
Wadsworth DD, Johnson JL, Carroll AV, Pangelinan MM, Rudisill ME, Sassi J. Intervention strategies to elicit MVPA in preschoolers during outdoor play. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(2):650.
Calise TV, Spitzer N, Ruggiero L, Ryder A, Wingerter C, Hatcher A. Association between multi-component initiatives and physical activity-related behaviors: interim findings from the healthy schools healthy communities initiative. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):340.
Gray C, Gibbons R, Larouche R, Sandseter EB, Bienenstock A, Brussoni M, et al. What is the relationship between outdoor time and physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and physical fitness in children? a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(6):6455–74.
Poitras VJ, Gray CE, Janssen X, Aubert S, Carson V, Faulkner G, et al. Systematic review of the relationships between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in the early years (0–4 years). BMC Public Health. 2017;17(Suppl 5):868.
Hutton JS, Dudley J, Horowitz-Kraus T, DeWitt T, Holland SK. Associations between screen-based media use and brain white matter integrity in preschool-aged children. JAMA Pediatr. 2020;174(1):e193869.
Jago R, Baranowski T, Baranowski JC, Thompson D, Greaves KA. BMI from 3–6 y of age is predicted by TV viewing and physical activity, not diet. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005;29(6):557–64.
Carson V, Lee EY, Hesketh KD, Hunter S, Kuzik N, Predy M, et al. Physical activity and sedentary behavior across three time-points and associations with social skills in early childhood. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):27.
Jones RA, Hinkley T, Okely AD, Salmon J. Tracking physical activity and sedentary behavior in childhood: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2013;44(6):651–8.
Sallis JF, Owen N, Fisher EB. Ecological models of health behavior. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K, editors. Ecological models of behaviour: Theory, research and practice. San-Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2008. p. 465–85.
Bingham DD, Costa S, Hinkley T, Shire KA, Clemes SA, Barber SE. Physical activity during the early years: a systematic review of correlates and determinants. Am J Prev Med. 2016;51(3):384–402.
Kepper MM, Myers CA, Denstel KD, Hunter RF, Guan W, Broyles ST. The neighborhood social environment and physical activity: a systematic scoping review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2019;16(1):124.
do Carmo AS, Rodrigues D, Nogueira H, Mendes LL, Dos Santos LC, Gama A, et al. Influence of parental perceived environment on physical activity, TV viewing, active play and body mass index among Portuguese children: a mediation analysis. Am J Hum Biol. 2020;32(6):e23400.
Elgar FJ, Trites SJ, Boyce W. Social capital reduces socio-economic differences in child health: evidence from the canadian health behaviour in school-aged children study. Can J Public Health. 2010;101:23–7.
Hunter S, Carson V, Timperio A, Salmon J, Carver A, Veitch J. Moderators of parents’ perceptions of the neighborhood environment and children’s physical activity, time outside, and screen time. J Phys Act Health. 2020;17(5):557–65.
Hnatiuk JA, Dwyer G, George ES, Bennie A. Co-participation in physical activity: perspectives from Australian parents of pre-schoolers. Health Promot Int. 2020;35(6):1474–83.
Cradock AL, Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Gortmaker SL, Buka SL. Neighborhood social cohesion and youth participation in physical activity in Chicago. Soc Sci Med. 2009;68(3):427–35.
Parent N, Guhn M, Brussoni M, Almas A, Oberle E. Social determinants of playing outdoors in the neighbourhood: family characteristics, trust in neighbours and daily outdoor play in early childhood. Can J Public Health. 2021;112(1):120–7.
Aarts MJ, Wendel-Vos W, van Oers HA, van de Goor IA, Schuit AJ. Environmental determinants of outdoor play in children: a large-scale cross-sectional study. Am J Prev Med. 2010;39(3):212–9.
Carson V, Janssen I. Neighborhood disorder and screen time among 10–16 year old Canadian youth: a cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:66.
Burdette HL, Whitaker RC. A national study of neighborhood safety, outdoor play, television viewing, and obesity in preschool. Children. 2005;116(3):657–62.
Brown HS, Pérez A, Mirchandani GG, Hoelscher DM, Kelder SH. Crime rates and sedentary behavior among 4thgrade Texas school children. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008;5:28.
Carson V, Janssen I. Associations between factors within the home setting and screen time among children aged 0–5 years: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:539.
Sampson RJ, Raudenbush SW, Earls F. Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science. 1997;80(277):918–24.
Parker E, Lichtenstein R, Schulz A, Israel B, Schork M, Steinman K, James S. Disentangling measures of individual perceptions of community social dynamics: results of a community survey. Health Educ & Beh. 2001;28(4):462–86.
Cortina JM. What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. J Appl Psych. 1993;78(1):98–104.
Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Black J, Chen D. Neighborhood-based differences in physical activity: an environment scale evaluation. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1552–8.
Hinkley T, Salmon J, Okely A, Crawford D, Hesketh K. The HAPPY study: development and reliability of a parent survey to assess correlates of preschool children’s physical activity. J of Sci Med Sport. 2012;15(5):407–17.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Census of Population and Housing: Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), Australia, 2016. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, Australia, 2016.
Groenewegen PP, Zock JP, Spreeuwenberg P, Helbich M, Hoek G, Ruijsbroek A, et al. Neighbourhood social and physical environment and general practitioner assessed morbidity. Health Place. 2018;49:68–84.
Hnatiuk JA, Campbell KJ, Ridgers ND, Hesketh KD. Early childhood predictors of toddlers’ physical activity: longitudinal findings from the Melbourne InFANT Program. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:123.
Boxberger K, Reimers AK. Parental correlates of outdoor play in boys and girls aged 0 to 12-a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(2):190.
Truelove S, Bruijns BA, Vanderloo LM, O’Brien KT, Johnson AM, Tucker P. Physical activity and sedentary time during childcare outdoor play sessions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2018;108:74–85.
Putrik P, van Amelsvoort L, Mujakovic S, Kunst AE, van Oers H, Kant I, et al. Assessing the role of criminality in neighbourhood safety feelings and self-reported health: results from a cross-sectional study in a Dutch municipality. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):920.
Veitch J, Timperio A, Crawford D, Abbott G, Giles-Corti B, Salmon J. Is the neighbourhood environment associated with sedentary behaviour outside of school hours among children? Ann Beh Med. 2011;41(3):331–41.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Physical activity across the life stages. Cat. no. PHE 225. Canberra: AIHW; 2018.
McNeill J, Howard S, Vella S, Cliff D. Compliance with the 24-Hour movement guidelines for the early years: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with executive function and psychosocial health in preschool children. J Sci Med Sport. 2020;23(9):846–53.
Remmers T, Van Kann D, Gubbels J, Schmidt S, de Vries S, Ettema D, et al. Moderators of the longitudinal relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play in children: the KOALA birth cohort study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11:150.